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California law allows for people with disabilities to live, travel, and go about their daily lives in the presence of a service dog. Service dogs are afforded certain rights in the State of California that cannot be denied due to local laws and regulations.

If you have a disability that requires the help of a Service Dog, you are (under Federal law) entitled to such an animal.

Read on for more information on California Service Dog requirements and regulations.

Definition of a Service Dog

A Service Dog is any canine that is trained to perform a disability-specific task for the person who has a medical, physical, psychiatric, or mental disability. Miniature horses are also recognized as a “service animal” in California as long as it is being used for a disability-related task.

Although service dogs are protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), similar protections do not apply to Psychiatric Service or Emotional Support Dogs, unless you live in San Francisco. This city allows both service dogs and emotional support animals at any building, program, or agency of the City and County of San Francisco and its contractors.

How is the Service Dog Trained?

For your dog to be considered a legitimate Service Dog, it must be trained to perform a task for you that you cannot do for yourself. This can include opening doors, alerting, guiding, or pulling a wheelchair.

Dogs can be trained by the person with the disability, a professional canine trainer, or a friend or family member (as long as the dog is obedience and task-specifically trained).

Identification Requirements for Service Dogs in California

It is not mandatory in California to have an identification tag or vest on your Service Dog. However, it is highly recommended. To obtain an identification tag, your Service Dog must meet certain explicit requirements (in training) to be considered legitimate. A service dog must provide a service to a person with a disability in order to qualify as a service animal. Once you have fulfilled all requirements, you and your service animal will be protected under state law.

Service Dog Registration in California

Please note that service dog registration is not required by law, but instead can assist in identifying your dog as a service dog. Service dog registration can provide privacy and protection from unnecessary harassment from uninformed individuals.

Psychiatric Service Dog Requirements

California is one of the states in which a dog can be trained to perform tasks that will benefit a person with a psychiatric disability. A psychiatric disability is a “mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual”.

A trained dog that performs a task for their owner is considered a “Psychiatric Service Dog” and must perform tasks that are identifiable and directly related to an individual’s diagnosed psychiatric disability. The dog’s trainer or handler is required to teach that animal to recognize and respond to the unique needs of the person with the disability.

California considers the following as psychiatric disabilities:

Eating Disorders Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder Anxiety Disorders Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders Personality Disorders Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder Substance Abuse

Psychiatric service dogs can be trained to alert their owner by performing the following tasks:

Deep pressure therapy Reminding the owner to take medication Posting and watching the owner’s back in open areas Tactile stimulation Alerting the owner Waking up the owner And More Service Dog or Emotional Support Dog in California

People using Service Dogs in this state must have their canine on a leash or harness and should have an official identification tag. Even though California does not limit the dog’s size or breed, the animal’s handler is liable for any damage done by the service animal. There are also no specific legal requirements in existence as to how much or what type of work a service dog must provide to benefit the disabled person, but a dog that is just a friend (or a pet) is not considered a Service Animal.

If your dog is not specially trained to provide a service for your disability, it may still qualify as an emotional support dog. Emotional support animals do not have the same level of access as service animals, but they are recognized as assistance animals. Emotional support dogs can live and travel with their owners without having to pay additional pet fees. Emotional support animals provide support and comfort to owners that suffer from depression, anxiety, PTSD, etc.

Qualify for an emotional support dog letter by completing the online questionnaire below.

Click here to qualify for an ESA letter. You and Your Service Dog in California

Once you have your Service Dog trained, you are allowed by Federal law to bring your Service Canine with you in all areas where the general public is allowed. Since California’s law has a broader definition of public accommodations, the state requires “reasonable modifications to be carried out at any place “to which the general public is invited.”

This means that Service Dogs are also allowed legally on all types of public transportation, including buses, planes, and trains. You can also be asked whether the animal is a service animal, and what it is trained to do.

If you think you could benefit from the help of a Service Dog, then ask your medical professional for their opinion. Whether you train your dog yourself or enlist the help of a professional, a family member or a friend, know that your dog must be trained to perform a task you cannot do for yourself.

Service dog owners are afforded special rights and protections under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). It is essential for every service dog handler to understand what their legal rights are and how to exercise them. It is also important for staff members at establishments such as restaurants, stores, hotels, schools, and other public locations to understand how they can properly verify a service dog without running afoul of ADA rules.  

In this article, we will explain what rights service dog handlers have under the ADA, how an animal companion qualifies as a service dog, and what staff members at public establishments are permitted and not permitted to ask a service dog owner. We will also answer some frequently asked questions regarding service dog rules. 

What is a service animal? How does the ADA define a disability? What disabilities qualify for a service dog under the ADA?  Where are service dogs allowed? Can I board flights with my service dog? What questions are you allowed to ask a service dog owner? Do I need a professional trainer to train my service dog? Can I train my service dog myself? Which breeds can be service dogs? Are emotional support animals the same thing as service animals? When can a business ask a service dog and its handler to leave an establishment?  Do you need a vest, ID card or special harness for a service dog? How do you certify or register a service dog? My city requires dogs be registered and licensed, are service dogs exempt?  My city requires that dogs be vaccinated, is that applicable to service dogs?  Can a service dog be off leash? Can a restaurant or hotel force my service dog to remain in a certain area? Can a hotel charge me for staying with a service dog? Are service dogs allowed in self-service restaurants, such as buffets? Are restaurants required to allow service dogs to be seated on chairs or be fed at the table? 1. What is a service animal?

The ADA defines a service animal as a dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for someone living with a disability. These tasks may include alerting people who are deaf, guiding people who are visually impaired, calming a person during an anxiety attack, reminding someone with depression to take prescription medications, or protecting a person who is experiencing a seizure. 

Service dogs that assist with mental and emotional health issues or learning disabilities are called psychiatric service dogs (PSD). Psychiatric service dogs are a type of service dog and have the same rights as service dogs that assist people with physical disabilities. When this article refers to “service dogs,” which also includes psychiatric service dogs. 

Service dogs are remarkable canines capable of a wide range of tasks that help make independent living possible for their handlers. These unique working animals undergo specialized training to learn tasks that mitigate the difficulties caused by specific disabilities. Service dogs are working animals – not pets. They must be trained to perform a task that is directly related to the handler’s disability. 

2. How does the ADA define a disability?

ADA service dog laws prohibit discrimination against disabled people with service animals in employment, public accommodations, state and local government activities, public transportation, commercial facilities, and telecommunication. In the context of the ADA, “disability” is used as a legal term as opposed to a medical one and has a specific definition.

Under the ADA, a person with a disability has a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits at least one major life activity. This includes individuals who are regarded as having a disability even if their disability is not physically visible (i.e., mental health conditions and learning disabilities). 

In addition to the ADA, owners of service dogs have rights under the Fair Housing Act (FHA), Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA), and various state laws. 

3. What disabilities qualify for a service dog under the ADA? 

In the context of the ADA, “disability” is used as a legal term as opposed to a medical one and has a specific definition: under the ADA, a person with a disability is someone who has a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits at least one major life activity. A disabled person can also be a person who has a history or record of such an impairment or a person who is perceived by others as having such an impairment. 

The ADA does not specifically list out every type of impairment that qualifies as a disability. The disability can be a physical disability such as blindness or impaired mobility, or it can be an invisible disability in the form of a mental condition such as PTSD or severe depression or anxiety. 

4. Where are service dogs allowed?

Businesses, nonprofit organizations, and state and local governments that serve the public are generally required to allow service dogs to accompany people with disabilities in any areas open to the public. This would include restaurants, grocery stores, retail stores, hotels, office buildings, school campuses, parks, and other establishments open to the public. 

Service dogs can also board the cabin of airplanes with their owners without having to pay a pet fee.  Service dogs also have rights for housing: they are allowed to live with their owners free of charge or deposits, even in buildings that prohibit pets. 

5. Can I board flights with my service dog?

Service dogs and psychiatric service dogs are allowed to board flights with their owners, free of charge. The U.S. Department of Transportation implemented new regulations in early 2021 that effectively ended the ability of emotional support animals to board most U.S. flights. However, the DOT affirmed the right of service dogs and psychiatric service dogs to board flights in the cabin. 

Airlines cannot charge fees for service dogs to board, even though they may charge such fees for normal pets. To fly with a service dog, the passenger must submit a completed DOT Service Animal Transportation Form to the airline before boarding. The form requires the service dog handler to self-certify that they have a trained service animal. It also requires the name of the dog’s trainer (which can be the owner) and the name (but not the signature) of the dog’s veterinarian. 

For a complete guide to flying with a service animal or psychiatric service animal, check out this helpful article

6. What questions are you allowed to ask a service dog owner?

The staff or employees at a public establishment such as a restaurant, bar, store, hotel, office building, or school may only as two limited questions if it is not obvious what service the dog provides:

Is the dog a service animal required because of a disability? What work or task has the dog been trained to perform?

The staff member cannot require a doctor’s note, inquire about the handler’s disability, ask for an identification card or training certificate, and/or demand medical documents.

In addition, staff members are not permitted to ask the handler to have their service dog demonstrate its ability to perform work for the owner. It is important to note as well that the two questions above are only allowed if the disability is not apparent. For example, if the service dog is being used as a guide dog for a blind person, it would not be appropriate to interrogate them about their service dog. 

7. Do I need a professional trainer to train my service dog? Can I train my service dog myself?

ADA service dog rules do not require that service dog owners use a professional trainer. To make your dog a service dog, you do not need to complete any specific training program. Service dog handlers are allowed to train their dog themselves without the help of a professional trainer or training program. 

Service dog owners should note that under ADA rules, service dogs in training are not considered to be service animals. That means that before a service dog owner can enjoy all of the rights afforded to service dog owners under the ADA, their dog must be fully trained to perform the task that assists with the handler’s disability. Some State and local laws may, however, give rights to dogs that are still in the training stages. 

8. Which breeds can be service dogs?

Under ADA rules for service dogs, a service dog can be any type of dog breed. A public establishment or landlord is not allowed to prohibit entry for a service dog solely because it is a certain breed. The service dog may be asked to leave the premises if it is not under the control of the handler or acts in a way that threatens the health and safety of others. Staff members and landlords at an establishment or apartment complex cannot however ask a service dog to leave simply because they are afraid of the dog solely due to preconceived notions about the dog’s breed. 

ADA rules also take precedent over local rules regarding breed restrictions. For example, if your city bans a certain breed of dog, that ban cannot be categorically applied to service animals. 

9. Are emotional support animals the same thing as service animals?

No, emotional support animals, or ESAs, are not the same thing as service animals. The ADA does not recognize dogs who solely provide emotional support or comfort as service animals. Unlike service dogs, emotional support animals do not require any special training

Emotional support animals are intended to provide support for mental and emotional disabilities through companionship. ESAs have more limited access rights than service dogs. Emotional support animals are allowed in residences and on flights but do not have a right to be in places such as stores, hotels, or restaurants that prohibit pets the same way service dogs do.

That does not mean a service dog cannot assist with a psychiatric condition. For example, a service dog can be used to remind depressed individuals to take their medication. Or, for someone with anxiety, a service dog can be trained to sense an impending anxiety attack and take actions to prevent the attack or minimize its impact. However, if a person with anxiety is just using the dog’s companionship as a source of comfort for their condition, the animal would not qualify as a service dog. 

10. When can a business ask a service dog and its handler to leave an establishment? 

A disabled person with a service dog can only be asked to remove their animal from the premises in limited circumstances. It is appropriate for staff members to ask a handler to remove their service dog if the dog is out of control or the dog is not housebroken. A service dog handler may also be asked to leave if their service dog’s actions are threatening the health and safety of other people. 

It is not appropriate to ask a service dog to leave due to allergies or a fear of dogs. Under ADA guidance, if someone is allergic to a dog and needs to share space with a disabled person and their service dog, both people should be accommodated by assigning them where possible to different locations within the room or facility. 

11. Do you need a vest, ID card or special harness for a service dog?

Under ADA service dog rules, items such as vests, ID cards, or special harnesses are not required for service dogs. However, many service dog owners utilize these accessories as helpful tools that signal to the public that their dog is a service dog. By using a service dog ID card, vest or harness, a service dog handler can clearly indicate to members of the public that their dog is on duty and should not be disturbed. These accessories help to set proper boundaries so handlers can avoid invasive inquiries and interactions. 

12. How do you certify or register a service dog?

Service animals do not need to be certified or registered to qualify as service animals. Employees and staff are not permitted to require documentation from a handler that the animal is certified, trained, or licensed as a service animal as a condition for entry.

Some service dog owners will certify or register their dogs through an organization to help notify others that their animal is a service dog. However, these documents are optional and do not by themselves convey legal rights under the ADA.  

13. My city requires dogs be registered and licensed, are service dogs exempt? 

No, service dogs are not exempt from local registration and licensing requirements that apply to all dogs. This is different from organizations that register and license dogs as service animals. As discussed earlier, these organizations do not confer any official status on service dogs and their services are optional. If your city however requires all dogs to be licensed and registered, your service dog must also comply. 

14. My city requires that dogs be vaccinated, is that applicable to service dogs? 

Service dogs are not exempt from local rules regarding animal control and health. If your city requires vaccinations for all dogs, then your service dog must also comply. 

15. Can a service dog be off leash?

Under ADA rules, a service dog must always be under the control of its owner. Service dogs must be tethered, harnessed, or leashed unless the owner’s disability prevents them from using these items or these items interfere with the dog’s ability to safely and effectively perform its tasks. In situations where a tether, harness, or leash is not suitable, the handler must maintain control of their animal through voice, signal, or other means of control. An establishment can ask a handler to remove their service dog from the premises if the handler does not have control of their animal. 

16. Can a restaurant or hotel force my service dog to remain in a certain area?

No, under ADA Rules for service dogs, handlers with service dogs cannot be isolated from other customers or treated less favorably than other customers. The establishment cannot have a special area for service dogs and limit the handler’s activities to that one area. For example, a hotel cannot limit guests with service dogs to designated “pet-friendly” rooms.

17. Can a hotel charge me for staying with a service dog?

No, a business can never charge a deposit or fee in connection with service dogs. If the hotel charges a fee for pets, it must waive that fee for a guest who is staying with a service dog. Hotels are also not allowed to charge service dog owners cleaning fees to clean up hair or dander shed by the dog. However, if the hotel or other business usually charges guests for damages, a handler can be held responsible for paying for any damage caused by their service dog.  

18. Are service dogs allowed in self-service restaurants, such as buffets?

Yes, service dogs must be allowed to accompany their owners through self-service food areas such as salad bars and buffets. Service animals are also allowed in cafeterias such as those found in the workplace or on school campuses.  

19. Are restaurants required to allow service dogs to be seated on chairs or be fed at the table?

No, seating at a restaurant and the food served at the establishment are for patrons only. A service dog owner is allowed to have their animal companion next to them, but they cannot expect the restaurant to allow the dog to be seated or fed at the table. 

We’ve probably all seen a service dog helping to guide a person that is physically challenged but did you know you can also have a service dog if you suffer from anxiety?

Dogs can be especially helpful to those that suffer from any number of mental or emotional issues such as PTSD or social anxiety. However, unlike a service dog that has been trained by professionals to work with their owner, you can train your own dog to help you cope with your emotional trauma. Here are some basic steps on how to train a service dog for anxiety.

Step #1 – Choosing the Right Service Dog

It is highly recommended to start out with the right breed for being a service dog. Some canines just do not exhibit the right temperament to do this important and demanding job.

To ensure you are getting a pup that can be trained for service, it’s advised to look to those reputable breeders that are raising dogs for this specific purpose. You can also find great service dog candidates at your local shelters too!

According to Psychiatric Service Dog Partners when choosing a puppy for service work, look for these qualities;

Social – quick to greet Does not startle easily Follows Eager to be held Alert Step #2 – Determine the Service Dog’s Job 

Once you have your puppy you must determine what you will need the dog to do for you in order to guide its training. Once this is established you can begin bonding with your puppy. This helps create a baseline for your dog to recognize when you are in a relaxed state and when you are beginning to experience anxiety – dogs are very intuitive so the right dog will pick up on this naturally.

Step #3 – Develop Socialization Skills

Reputable breeders will have already started the socialization process with their puppies. This means the puppy has been handled extensively, been introduced to new people and new situations as well as being taken outside of the home.

When you get your puppy, it’s important that you keep up the socialization. The last thing you want is a dog that is frightened or stressed each time it encounters something new.

Step #4 – Start Basic Training Skills

All dogs should have the basics of training and good behavior, but it is doubly important if you plan to bring your dog with you into public areas. These skills include;

Sit Stay Drop Heel Leave Come

If you feel you cannot teach your canine companion the basic obedience skills needed, then enlist the help of a professional trainer. These people have the knowledge to, not only teach your dog, but also teach you how to continue the training outside of the weekly sessions.

Step #5 – Fine Tune Public Access Skills

Once your service dog-in-training has mastered his/her basic commands, then you can begin to work on public access skills. Use those pet-friendly areas like retail pet stores, outdoor cafes etc. to help your dog become accustomed to the hustle and bustle of public places.

Step #6 – Individual Response Training

It may be difficult to train a dog to alert a person before a panic attack, but with a close bond, your dog may pick up on your different body language and, if you are completely fear-stricken, the chemical changes in your body.

Some people who suffer from anxiety and stress have reported that giving the puppy/dog a treat when they are experiencing the symptoms is a helpful way to teach your dog to respond; however, not everyone is capable of this type of action when in the midst of anxiety, stress or fear.

Cuddling your dog close when you feel stressed is not only a great way to help bring relief to you, but will also allow the dog the chance to pick up on your “tell” signs. This is why it is crucial to find the right breed and/or temperament of your canine service dog.

Training a Service Dog for Anxiety

When training a service dog for anxiety you will have to have patience and persistence, especially with puppies. Begin with the basic training skills and socialization, then work your dog up for public access. Having a dog that helps with severe anxiety, PTSD, panic attacks and so on is a therapeutic way to get your life back on track.